Saturday, June 27, 2020

Varg Sangharsh ki Pukar

CPI (M-L) Central Committee Hindi Organ

Editor : Com. Aravind Kumar Sinha

Mar-Jun, 2020 Issue

In This Issue :

Editorial :

Corona, Modi Governance and working class

Statements :

1)  May day , Modi Governance and challenges on working class

2) Covid – 19 Pandemic and Crisis of Capitalism

3) Express Solidarity with Peoples Struggle against Racial Oppression and Class          Exploitation in USA!

Article :

On Karl Marx

Reports :

1) Bihar me CPI(ML) ke banner tale Mazdoorom, Mehanath kashlom, Garibom evam aam janatha ki jwalanth mango ko lekar vibhinna jilom me julus pradharsan evam ka karyakram

2)  Sabhi shahari evam grameen mazdoorom ke liye samuchith rojgaar ki vyavastha karo!   Manregaa kamgarom ke liye kam-se-kam 200 dhin ke kam ki gaaranti karo aur 400 rupiye prathidhin ki dhar se majdoori ka bhugathan karo!

3)  Bihar ke gayaa me 16 February, 2020 ko jan abhiyan, Bihar ke banner tale CAA, NRC, NPR evam any tale kaanunom ke khilap jan pradharsan evam aam sabhi ka aayojan

4) 19 se 21 February, 2020 ko Patna ke Buddh Smruthi Park ke samip jan abhiyan, Bihar ke thathvavdhaan me CAA, NRC evam NPR ke prathidhin me jan-samvadh

5)  Suvidhavom ki mang ke lekar Citizens Forum, Patna ka pradharsan

 6)  Janthantrik aavajom par dhaman ke khilap jan abhiyan, Bihar ka pradharsin


Posted to Subscribers.

Thursday, June 11, 2020



    The news of martyrdom of Comrade Gananaath Pathro on 6th June 2020 reached me a little late. I am disturbed very much by the death of that comrade. I am extending my revolutionary tributes to him. I express heartfelt sympathy towards the life partner of Comrade GP Ms.Safaali and his family members. As there is lack of transport facility due to corona I failed to meet his bereaved family members. Comrade GP and I worked in different committees for 40 years. When he was the Orissa state committee secretary I worked along with him in Malkangiri and Koraput areas. In the revolutionary movement my affinity with him was great.

    Comrade GP belongs to Baleswar district in Orissa. Though born in a very poor family he  completed his M.Sc in Chemistry. As an employee he came from one corner of the state to another corner and joined as a lecturer in Parlakamidi college. As he had the influence of communist politics right from his student days, he was very much influenced by the girijan peasant movement in Srikakulam area. So he resigned to his job and participated in the struggles at Uddanam area. For some time he worked as a squad member also. In this process he assessed the different streams of revolutionary politics and in 1973 he joined in the organization led by Comrade TN. He became a member of AOBRC and Comrade Viswam was then its secretary .  Then onwards he worked under the state committee.

    Comrade Purushotham Pali, the iron man of Adivasis of Koraput also was member of this regional committee and he used to have connections with Adivasis in Malkangiri and Sunki areas. The party sent me to Orissa to work as an organizer with Comrade Purushotham Pali. Orissa State Committee was formed and Com. GP was the secretary that committee.

    We used to have organizational and agitational connections with the state committee members of Orissa viz Comrades Vijay Upadhyay, Susheel Roy and GP. Malkangiri area  committee which is under AOBRC used to take help and cooperation of Com. GP for the forming of mass organizations.

    Comrade GP was arrested in 1985 in Rourkela.  Soon after his release from the jail, Com. GP under the direction of the central committee actively participated in the movement against the launching of a nuclear missile centre at Baliapal. The agitation was so effective that the government withdrew its decision.  Com. Bhavani participated in this agitation very actively.

    Comrade Purushotham Pali breathed his last with heart attack in 1988. After that on the question of local and non-local feelings created by some of the state committee members, Comrade GP differed with them.

    There was serious attempt to build Girijan movement in the Parvathipuram area under the leadership of Raithu Coolie Sangham since 1992. Anti arrack agitation also is a part and parcel of this movement. The effect of anti arrack agitation extended to the villages in Orissa adjacent to Parvathipuram. Thousands of adivasi people participated in this movement. In the midst of repression and disturbances we started Chashi Mulia Adivasi Sangh.

    Under the leadership of this sangh thousands of people were organized against forest officers and pettandars oppression in Bandugaon, Narayana patna areas of Korapurt district. In this connection, Comrade GP attended the public meetings at Vizayanagaram District Raithu Coolie Sangh and in Bandugaon, Narayanapatna areas also.

    Comrade GP opened the office building of Raithu Coolie Sangh constructed under its leadership at Parvathipuram on 7th May 2003. During the election time he participated in several public meetings and spoke on different contemporary problems. As an extension to this he attended in the activities of Chashi Mulia Adivasi Sangh. We constructed a Martyrs Column at Srikakulam.   Which was suppose to be inaugurated by Com. Kanu Sanyal. District police prohibited this meeting which will be held on May 27th of 1998. Comrade GP after words opened it in September 1999. All these things show the affinity and political connection between us and Comrade GP.

    In 2008 we had differences with Comrade GP on the political line to be taken in regard to the land problem of Narayanapatna, as a part and parcel of the movement that was going on in Bandugaon and Narayanapatna areas of Koraput district. There were contradictions between Adivasis and Paidies of Narayanapatna. As a class Paidies were poor. But Paidies (SC) on behalf of Sondis and the Shavukars used to attack the Adivasis, threaten them and extract paddy from them. In order to disintegrate the Chashi Mulia Adivasi Sangh, sondies and the Shavukars conspired together to make use of the differences between Paidies and Adivasis to their advantage. In spite of the atrocities of Paidies on Adivasis, we wanted to unite them and Comrade GP differed with this line. While condemning the attacks on Adivasis by Paidies, the Chashi Mulia Adivasi Sangh at the same time decided to unite them in the struggle for land. But Comrade GP was against this. The Orissa state committee members Com. Srikanth, Com. Basu and some other state committee members are also not accepted GP’s line. This is the main difference between Comrade GP and us. Instead of agitation on the basis of Narayanapatna land issue this difference led to many other problems and as a result of it we lost physically valuable comrades. The police killed Comrade Singanna in this agitation. We lost Pinninti Suresh. After that Maoist party murdered Comrade Arjun. Several comrades were imprisoned under so many false cases. Comrade GP was also imprisoned, Chashi Mulia Adivasi Sangh widely agitated against his arrest.

    As correct line was not implemented in regard to land issue we had to face different problems. The party tried in vain to solve these problems and make advance the movement. As the correct line was not implemented we faced several problems. All these memories and incidents came to my mind as soon as I heard the death news of Comrade GP.

    Lastly I remember how Comrade GP got a brain stroke in a meeting at Nellore in 2002. He was out of danger as immediate treatment was given. The doctors and comrades saved his life.

    Comrade GP had maintained close relations with Comrade Viswam and other state committee members of Andhra Pradesh. On behalf of the A.P. state committee we remember Comrade GP. I had close contact with the family members of Comrade GP. His life partner Comrade Safaali, thier eldest daughter Roja, the youngest daughter Arunatara, and the son Toofan are all close to me.

    His sister greatly co-operated Comrade GP. She extended a helping hand to his family. Comrade Safaali belongs to Rajghat village in Baleswar district. I had affectionate relations with that family also. We cannot separate Comrade Safaali from the political life of Comrade GP. She had taken up several responsibilities of the party and at the same time maintained the family with hardship. Once again I extend my red salute to Comrade GP.




AP State Committee.


C O M M U N I S T  P A R T Y  OF  I N D I A  [M A R X I S T-L E N I N I S T] 

 C E N T R A L   C O M M I T T E E


    Com. Tapan Banerjee, a senior Comrade and a Secretariat Member of West Bengal State Committee, CPI (ML) has departed on May 24th, 2020. Incidentally, it was historic Naxalbari Day. Comrade was in an advanced age (80), indisposed for some time and succumbed to failing health.

    Com. Tapan Banerjee joined politics in 1965. For a brief period, he worked as a school teacher. Inspired by the great Naxalbari Peasant Uprising, he joined the revolutionary politics and decided to dedicate his life to revolution. The police arrested him in Maheshtala area – his area of work – and brutally tortured him. He was lodged in Dum Dum Central Jail. Again, the police arrested him in May 1971 in a jail escape attempt case and brutally tortured him. As a consequence, his body was crippled for the life. But the comrade has defied it and continued in revolutionary politics with the same zeal.

    After the release from jail, he joined the UC, CPI (ML) and later PCC, CPI (ML) and CPI (ML) Janasakti. Finally, he joined our Organization CPI (ML) in West Bengal and continued in it till the last moment of his life.

    The CC, CPI (ML) pays Red Salute to the departed Comrade. 

    Let his life as a Communist Revolutionary and his revolutionary zeal continue to inspire the comrades to hold high the Red Flag to the end. 

May 25th, 2020                                                                                                                                 VISWAM

                                                                                             GENERAL SECRETARY

                                                  CPI (ML)  



Wednesday, June 10, 2020

Red Salute To Comrade Gananath Pathro

   C O M M U N I S T  P A R T Y  O F  I N D I A  [M A R X Is T -  L E N I N I S T]


                It is a matter of regret to note that Comrade Gananath Pathro, a Communist Revolutionary and senior comrade from Odisha has departed on June 6th, 2020. He was in an advanced (80 years) age and breathed his last owing to failing health.

                Inspired by the great Naxalbari Peasant Revolutionary Movement, he left his job and decided to dedicate his life to the revolutionary politics. He worked in different areas and in Odisha state. He joined our Organisation and was a leader of the party for several years. From one point of time, he chose to move away from our Organisation and remained so till the last moment of his life.

                The CC, CPI (ML) pays Red Salute to the departed Comrade. We convey our deep condolences to the members of his family.

 June 6th, 2020                                                                                                                    

 With Revolutionary Greetings,


                                                                                                                   General Secretary



                Deeply regret to note that Comrade P.K. Murthy is no more. For some time, he was bed-ridden and breathed his last owing to failing health.

                He joined the revolutionary politics in the revolutionary atmosphere of 1960s and integrated himself fully among the working class with a revolutionary zeal. By nature, he was friendly, unity minded and hard working.

                Com Murthy’s was a long journey in the CR Movement. We have fine memories of working in one Organization for several years. His demise is a serious loss to the CR Movement. 

                Red Salute to Com.

March 23, 2020.                                                                                                                                                


                                                                                                                     General Secretary

CPI (ML)   

Saturday, June 6, 2020

It is from Lenin's article "On the Significance of Militant Materialism."

"We must understand that without a solid philosophical basis no natural sciences, no materialism are able to struggle successfully against the pressure of bourgeois ideas and the reestablishment of the bourgeois world conception. To be up to this struggle, and to carry it successfully to the end, the natural scientist must be a contemporary materialist, a conscious follower of the materialism represented by Marx i.e., he must be a dialectical materialist. To attain this aim, the contributors to the periodical Under the Banner of Marxism must organise a systematic study of Hegel's dialectics from the materialistic point of view, i.e., the dialectics applied in a practical manner by Marx in his Capital and in his historical and political works"......

"Resting on the manner in which Marx applied the materialistically interpreted dialectic of Hegel, we can and must elaborate this dialectic from all sides, publish in the periodical excerpts from Hegel's chief works, interpret them materialistically, commenting them by samples of the application of dialectics in Marx's works, and also by samples of dialectics in the economic and political field, such as are very plentifully provided by recent history, especially, by the present imperialist war and evolution. In my opinion, the group of editors and contributors of the periodical Under the Banner of Marxism must be a kind of 'society of materialistic friends of Hegelian dialectic'. Contemporary students of natural science will find (provided they will know how to look for it, and if we learn to help them) in the materialistically interpreted dialectic of Hegel a series of answers to the philosophical questions raised by the revolution with regard to natural science, questions which lead astray into reaction the intellectual admirers of the bourgeois fashion".


Lenin, Article "On the Significance of Militant Materialism", Lenin Collected Works (Vol. XXVII).


Thursday, June 4, 2020

Freedom of Expression is a Myth in India

In the wake of the First War of Independence of 1857 in India, the British colonial rulers with the intention of forcefully suppressing and stifling any voice or act of the people of India opposing the British colonial rule or policies of its administration and forcefully suppress the democratic aspirations of people of India had introduced the Indian Penal Code (IPC) on 6th October 1860. They defined that “whether by words either spoken or written or by signs or by visible representation or otherwise brings or attempts to bring into hatred or contempt, or excites or attempts to excite disaffection towards the government established by law in India are seditious committing the crime of sedition”.

With this clause of sedition (124A) of Indian Penal Code, the British Colonial rulers have incarcerated many an Indian patriots that expressed their discontent, disaffection against the colonial British government and its administration. Even comments of disapprobation of the measures taken by the British colonial government and their administration were considered to be sedition and the concerned patriots were severely punished.

The legal heirs of these British colonial rulers, the rulers of the ‘independent’ India on the transfer of power in 1947 has inherited this legacy of I.P.C. along with the colonial institutions of administration and governance to rule the people of ‘independent’ India. Our rulers have not only inherited the laws of British colonial rulers but also the class nature of British colonial rulers as the sole principle of rule, to rule the ‘independent’ India. The Indian Penal Code inherited by the Indian rulers of independent India came handy to them, to implement and rule the country with ant people policies of exploitation and ruthless suppression.

It is being propagated for all these 73 years that India being an independent country and being the largest democratic country in the world, has a scared constitution which granted freedom of speech and expression as a fundamental right in its preamble as well with Article No 19 and thus freedom of speech and expression is enshrined as the fundamental right.

But the past 73 years the experience of the people of India proves them that the freedoms such as freedom of expression and speech enshrined remained as an empty promise and a mirage.

After 73 years of maturity in the adoption and implementation of anti-people policies of exploitation and suppression, our rulers belonging to whatever shade of ruling class politics are becoming more and more intolerant, enveloped with heedlessness against public opinion that expressed even an iota of opposition to the views and actions of the rulers, that too represent from their own class.

For our rulers the section 124A (sedition) of IPC has become handy as the Vajrayudha to suppress whatever discontent, disapprobation protest or satirical opposition expressed to their administration and its measures.

Recently this sword of Damocles called colonial justice is used on a cartoonist Aseem Trivedi, a follower of Anna Hazare and Kejrival of India Against Corruption (IAC) who has been actively supporting the IAC agitation through his cartoons.

The same draconian sword of colonial justice is used against the anti-nuclear activists of Kudankulam in Tamilnadu.

Aseem Trivedi is charged with sedition for having produced a cartoon of a new symbol of the Saranaath coloumn of Ashoka, relevant to these days of corrupted rulers.

The Kudankulam agitators were charged for opposing the installation of the perilous nuclear reactor sans any security to the people from atomic and nuclear accidents.

In fact in none of these incidents, the victims involved have never expressed their intention either directly or indirectly, to overthrow this ‘lawful’ government either through forceful means or otherwise.

They had merely expressed their opposition to the ever increasing corruption of our rulers in power and their fear and opposition against the menace of nuclear reactor accident lacking any security to the lives and the livelihood of people and are demanding not to operate the Kudankulam nuclear reactor.

In both these incidents the democratic aspirations of the people are expressed without any malice against the ‘lawfully’ established governments.

But our rulers have grown to such a degree of intolerance to suppress any dissent of opposition to the anti-people measures of policies implemented by them.

Though at the periphery this act of suppression appears to be the excessive reaction of the concerned police officials, it is no secret that such an act was done at the behest of the powers that are at the helm.

Such an intolerance of our rulers has not only manifested in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu where different ruling class parties are in power. Even in West Bengal ruled by TMC. A professor of Jadhavpur University Ambikesh Mahapatra was charged and incarcerated under sections of 500 (defamation), and 509 (insulting the modesty of women) and 114 (presence of abettor during the crime) for having posted a cartoon in his website- a caricature of Mamata Banerjee. She claimed that the cartoon was meant to ‘vanish’ her.

In the recent past Dr.Vinayaksen, a rights activist, Arundhati Roy and others were also implicated in the charge of ‘sedition’. A dalit activist and editor of Vidyarthi magazine into charge of sedition on Jan 4th 2011.

Thus it has become a practice for the rulers to falsely implicate the people, who genuinely and sincerely express their democratic aspirations and protest to realise them in a democratic way.

On the other hand our rulers never dare to lift even a finger against ruling class leaders like Bal Thakrey, Raj Thakrey, Uddav Thakrey of Shiv Sena and MNS who incessantly incite and excite hatred against people of other states that live in Mumbai or against RSS and its outfits which arrogated themselves as cultural police of India, resorting to violence on common people,. Even the Modi’s government and Modi that had excited hatred against Muslims and incited a massacre of Muslims do not appear to be seditious to our rulers since they too are the birds of the same flock.

Such has been the state of affairs in the ‘democratic’ India where expression of dissent is considered as sedition by our rulers. So our present day rulers are relying on the section 124A of IPC to safeguard their state, governed on the very principles of exploitation and suppression once which was used against Balgangadhar Tilak, Aurobindo Ghosh, Anne Besant, Saratchandra etc. by the British colonial rulers.

In 1951 Jawaharlal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India had grandly announced the “Now as far as I am concerned that particular section (124A) is highly objectionable and obnoxious and it should have no place …. in any body of laws that we might pass. The sooner we get rid of it the better.”

But not surprisingly this highly objectionable and obnoxious sections of law has not been got ridden in the time of his rule nor in the time of the rule of his daughter or in the time of the rule of his grandson not at the present time of the rule of his grandson’s spouse. It still remains in the statute book hypocrisy and the class character of our rulers who even in a dream never wish to do away this draconian law and who at the heart of hearts intend to use it against human rights activists, journalists, intellectuals, leaders of anti ruling class politics and common protesters against the anti people policies.

Our rulers though ratified the international covenant on civil rights and political rights in 1979 itself; they draconian law, which again expresses their real class character.

Such a common law of offence was abolished in USA by Thomas Jefferson in 1802 itself after he came to power. Even the British rulers who made this law of sedition in 1860 have abolished this common law of sedition in 1977. In 2007 New Zealand repealed such a law of sedition.

But the rulers of the world’s largest democracy are clinging to this draconian law to safeguard their seats of power blatantly opposing the very definition of democratic rights.

Due to public outcry and outrage against Trivedi’s arrest under section 124A  the Mumbai police directed by the rulers have graciously condescended to drop the sedition charges against him by filing an affidavit at Mumbai high court.

Failing to establish the offences of Professor Ambikesh Mahapatra the West Bengal police have dropped the charges of defamation, insult of the modestly of a woman and presence of the abettor during the crime, but charged him only under 66A (B) Information Technology Act ie delivery of insulting electronic message.

But the sedition charges against the leaders of Kudankulam anti-nuclear agitation are not yet dropped, since the protest agitation is continuing actively to the dislike of the rulers, who betrayed the people of Kudankulam.

Thus the myth of ‘freedoms’ granted by our constitutions and the myth of the ‘democracy’ in our country in once again exposed making the anti-people class nature of our system more conspicuous.




Wednesday, June 3, 2020

Express Solidarity with Peoples Struggle against Racial Oppression and Class Exploitation in USA!

Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist)

Central Committee



Express Solidarity with Peoples Struggle against

Racial Oppression and Class Exploitation in USA!

     Tens of thousands of people, mainly young and working class of all races, have taken to the streets of American cities to protest the police murder in Minneapolis of George Floyd, a 46-year-old Afro-American man, who died with a policeman’s knee on his throat for nine minutes, while horrified bystanders pleaded for his life and recorded the killing in videos that have shocked the world.


    The protestors are now branded as “thugs” and “thieves” -the usual ploy of the ruling classes. This not only meant to covers up US imperialism's failure to end racism, but also to obfuscate its perpetuation of economic and social inequalities existing the US society.  The upheaval taking place across the country is now as much about class as it is about racial injustice and police brutality.


     The long list of Black men shot to death by cops at a staggering rate—2.5 times greater than whites;  20% of the entire Black population, even before the Covid crisis, was living in severe poverty, some 9 million people; The  effects of Covid-19’s massive unemployment, some 40 million; The virus’s death disparity, the continued assault of black lives by the police force -  these are the underlying racial and class dynamics, that led to the countrywide protest.

     There is no doubt that racism was an important element in the murder of George Floyd. But racism is encouraged in a definite social context, of deepening social inequality under the US imperialism, where the ruling class makes every effort to divide and split the working class. More than 1,000 people are victims of police violence in America each year, and while a

disproportionate number are black, the largest number are white. What nearly all have in common is that they come from the working class, most from its poorest layers.


     The Central Committee of CPI(ML) strongly condemns the use of police and military forces to suppress the people by the Trump's administration. It calls upon the people and democratic forces to express solidarity with the struggle of the American people for social justice and economic equality.


3 June 2020

Vijayawada                                                                                        with revolutionary greeting,


                                                                                           General Secretary


Covid-19 Pandemic and Crisis of Capitalism

Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist)

Central Committee




Covid-19 Pandemic and Crisis of Capitalism


As Covid-19 is spreading rapidly across the globe, it constitutes the most urgent and serious challenge to both the health of humanity and world peace and development.

The CPI (ML) pays its tributes to all the people, health workers in particular, who devote themselves to saving lives and protecting people’s health. We extend our heartfelt sympathies to those who are suffering from Covid-19 infection as well as the bereaved families of those deceased. We also express our deep mourning for the loss of lives in the pandemic.

 If the Covid-19 outbreak is not effectively and promptly contained, it will cause greater harm to the lives and health of people, and exert a severe damage on the economic and social development of most countries. The CPI(ML) call on the Government of India to put lives and health of the people above everything else and take resolute measures to put an end to the spread of Covid-19. We call on the people to comply with prevention and mitigation measures as advised by the scientists with a due sense of social responsibility.

 CPI (ML) stands firmly against all discriminatory comments and practices against any country, region or ethnic group. There are heinous attempts in India to tarnish one community and one country as the cause of COVID-19 outbreak and calls upon the people not to fall prey to these machinations. CPI (ML) call upon government of India to take proactive measures to protect the health, safety and legitimate interests of foreign nationals and students they host.

 The COVID-19 outbreak exposed the destructive irrationality of capitalist system. It has wasted the natural resources, polluted the environment and created harsh conditions on the earth for the living organisms to exist. Thus mutations in the lower forms of life became imperative. The humans became victims of SARS, MERS and their variants in the recent past. For nearly two decades, it is known to the scientific researchers that there are hundreds of strains of corona virus. Thus the functioning of capitalist system not only led to the creation of COVID-19 but also failed to rational use of available technology in preventing the pandemic.

 The joint study and its report by the WHO and China was made available by the last week of February this year. It contained suggestions that are to be followed by all the countries. Yet, the Indian government did not respond as it had to. A crucial one month delay caused wide spread of COVID-19 along the length and breadth of India.

 The well-established practice at the time of an endemic or pandemic is the compulsory testing for infection of all suspects and then isolation of confirmed cases. Contrary to this, the government used isolation and selective testing. This is not effective in containing a pandemic of COVID-19 proportion. The lock-down method is useful to gain time for preparation to contain the pandemic. It can be used to blame the people for not observing the lock-down has spread the infection.

 The imposition of lock-down by the government is not associated with well-planned strategy. The measures to contain Covid-19, including those of public health, are themselves creating new burdens to the toiling masses. They are left without job and pay. They have nothing to fall back upon.

Millions of migrant workers, separated from their families and livelihoods, have to bear untold miseries. They came to metro cities in search of jobs and leading a wretched life. All of a sudden they find themselves as unwanted entitles. These workers are prepared to go back to their far flung villages walking all the way along with their families. They had to face barricades at every inter-district and inter-state border. They were made to wait for days here without food and shelter. When these unbearable conditions made them to proceed forward, they had faced brutal repression, frequent resort by the failed ruler.

 The government has no plan to extend a helping hand to them not to mention the promises made by the Prime Minister and Finance Minister. Even after two weeks of lock-down, the government has not yet made arrangements to provide them with financial and other help. The higher ups in the power incessantly talked about the Direct Benefit Transfer. The fact of the matter is that more than half of jan dhan accounts are non-functional. The toiling masses are left to fend themselves, while the Modi gave calls for showing solidarity by clapping and lighting candles, that are nothing but show pieces.

 The pandemic also brought to the fore the failure of the privatisation of public health services taken up as a part of neo-liberal dictats. The government run hospitals have to suspend all the medical services to other ailments of people except COVID patients. They are overburdened and in case of any surge in the COVID cases, the fragile system collapses.

     CPI (ML) once again calls upon the people to comply with prevention and mitigation measures as advised by the scientists with a due sense of social responsibility.


5 April 2020                                                                                                                                                    Viswam

General Secretary

C.P.I. (M-L)




It is 172 years since the MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY authored by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels was first printed and released on Feb ...